India’s climate is dominated by the monsoon winds. They blow constantly from June to September. Winds coming from the Indian Ocean absorb wet air on their way to the Indian subcontinent. During this period much of India receives heavy rainfall. The heaviest rain falls in the northeastern part of India, on the foothills of the Himalayan Mountains. In some cases areas receive many meters of rainfall annually.
The monsoon is very important for India’s agriculture. It brings rain to normally dry areas so that crops like rice and corn can grow there. When the monsoon does not come or comes too late, much of India experiences a shortage of crops and food. During strong monsoon rains villages, roads and railway lines are often flooded.
In the winter time the monsoon changes its direction and blows as a dry, cool wind from the inner parts of Asia over the Himalayan Mountains to India. From October to February it can get very cold in the Himalayas.
From March to June it is dry but hot in India. Temperatures in the desert regions of northwestern India can rise up to 45°.
During the monsoon months wet winds move towards India. They bring heavy rainfall to the Himalayan Mountains. The wet air moves up the mountains where it loses all of its moisture. On the other side of the Himalayas it is dry and warm.
Land covered with water during the monsoon season